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Friday 18 August 2006

Extraction and preconcentration of salbutamol and terbutaline from aqueous samples using hollow fiber supported liquid membrane containing anionic carrier.

By: Yamini Y, Reimann CT

This paper presents a new three-phase liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) strategy for extraction and preconcentration of salbutamol (SB) and terbutaline (TB) from aqueous samples, including urine.

The drugs were extracted from 11 ml of aqueous sample (source phase; SP) into an organic phase with microliter volume located inside the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and then back-extracted into 24 microl of a second aqueous solution as the receiving phase (RP), located in the lumen of the hollow fiber. In preliminary experiments, we tried to transport the drugs using a pH gradient between the two sides of the hollow fiber. Due to the existence of both amine and phenolic groups on the drugs, very little transport occurred and enrichment factors (EF) less than one were obtained.

Further experiments were done in the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) monohydrogenphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) or methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) in the organic phase, to extract drugs from acidic and basic matrices, respectively. Results showed that transport of drugs from alkaline solution into 1M of sodium bromide occurred when the membrane was impregnated with dihexyl ether containing 20% Aliquat 336. To optimize the EF, the effects of different parameters such as the nature of organic solvent used to impregnate the membrane, compositions and volumes of SP and RP, type and concentration of carrier, extraction time and stirring rate were investigated.

Optimal results were obtained in the presence of 0.005 M of NaOH (pH 11.70) in the SP, 1M of NaBr in the RP, 20% of Aliquat 336 in dihexyl ether as membrane impregnation solvent, stirring rate of 500 rpm and extraction time of 60 min. Under these conditions, enrichment factors of 52.9 and 213.1, dynamic linear ranges of 20-5000 and 10-5000, and limits of detection of 2.5 and 0.5 ng/ml were obtained for salbutamol and terbutaline, respectively. Also determination of drugs in environmental water and urine samples in the range of nanograms per millilitre with RSDs<10% was possible using HPLC-photodiode array detection or HPLC-MS.

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