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Wednesday 01 December 1999

Duration of action of inhaled vs. Intravenous beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists in an anaesthetized guinea-pig model.

By: Mohammed SP, Taylor CV, Weyman-Jones CB, Mather ME, Vendy K, Dougall IG, Young A.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2000;13(6):287-92

We compared the duration of action of the short-acting alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol and the long-acting alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists salmeterol and formoterol when administered iv or by inhalation in a histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model in the guinea-pig. Following aerosol dosing, maximal bronchoprotector effects were seen for salbutamol, salmeterol and formoterol at concentrations of 1 mg/ml, 100 microg/ml and 30 microg/ml respectively, giving a potency order of formoterol > salmeterol > salbutamol. All displayed similar maximum effects in this system. A maximal concentration of salbutamol showed bronchoprotection at 1 h but not at 3 h post-dosing whereas maximal concentrations of formoterol and salmeterol showed protection up to 5 h post-aqueous-aerosol dosing, giving a duration order of salmeterol > formoterol > salbutamol. All three alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists showed dose-dependent bronchoprotection and duration of action following intravenous administration; salbutamol and salmeterol were equipotent and both were less potent than formoterol. Bronchoprotection obtained with sub-maximal concentrations of all three alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists faded within 30 min following iv administration, but this could be extended by increasing the doses. These results demonstrate that the route of administration is important in determining the duration of action of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists in the lung. Furthermore, such findings lend support to the suggestion that the physico-chemical characteristics of salmeterol govern its duration of action rather than sustained binding of this agonist to a alpha(2)-adrenoceptor exo-site. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

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