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Friday 28 January 2005

Differential regulation of chemokine expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists: interactions with glucocorticoids and beta2-agonists.

By: Nie M, Corbett L, Knox AJ, Pang L.

J Biol Chem 2005 Jan 28;280(4):2550-61

Chemokine-mediated inflammatory cell infiltration is a hallmark of asthma. We recently demonstrated that glucocorticoids and beta(2)-agonists additively or synergistically suppress tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced production of chemokines eotaxin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), respectively, in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, which may partly explain their combined benefits in asthma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) also modulate inflammatory gene expression. We reported here that the PPARgamma agonists 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and troglitazone, but not PPARalpha agonist WY-14643, inhibited TNFalpha-induced production of eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) but not IL-8. Eotaxin inhibition was transcriptional and additively enhanced by the glucocorticoid fluticasone and the beta(2)-agonist salmeterol, whereas MCP-1 inhibition was post-transcriptional and additively and synergistically enhanced by fluticasone and salmeterol, respectively. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that 15d-PGJ(2) induced a protein-protein interaction between PPARgamma and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in TNFalpha-treated HASM cells, which was enhanced by fluticasone and salmeterol. 15d-PGJ(2), fluticasone, and salmeterol all inhibited TNFalpha-induced histone H4 acetylation at the eotaxin promoter and NF-kappaB p65 binding to the eotaxin promoter and induced PPARgamma and GR association with the eotaxin promoter, as analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Our data suggest that chemokine expression in HASM cells is differentially regulated by PPARgamma agonists and that the interaction between PPARgamma and GR may be responsible for the additive and synergistic inhibition of chemokine expression by PPARgamma agonists, glucocorticoids, and beta(2)-agonists, particularly the chromatin-dependent suppression of eotaxin gene transcription. The interaction may have wide applications and may provide a potential target for pharmacological and molecular intervention.

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